5G and the future of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) services

5G and the future of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) services

5G and the future of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) services

October 08, 2021

Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X)

The automotive sector is on the brink of a digital revolution with the commencement of 5G, bringing new opportunities for cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) technology. Next-gen capabilities such as ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) and high bandwidth are set to transform connected cars and, ultimately, the way we travel.

Existing cellular technology addresses some V2X requirements, so what makes 5G so different? Combined with fast-developing AI and sensor technologies, 5G will enable completely autonomous vehicles. This means the possibility of eliminating or minimizing road accidents by enabling vehicles to share data in real-time and avoid accidents. In addition, 5G-powered self-driving cars will also vastly improve vehicular performance through energy optimization, ensure traffic efficiency, provide faster routes through accurate route mapping, enable safer roads by letting drivers “see” beyond their visual horizon, and much more. V2X will not only help vehicles communicate with each other and prevent accidents and hazards, but it will also help protect pedestrians with the PC5 interface integrated into their smartphones.

The result: significantly improved quality of life and tremendous monetary savings.

V2X capabilities and transmission modes

The connected cars of today have been evolving for years to become increasingly connected, intelligent, autonomous, and efficient. Apart from reducing latency and enhancing safety, cellular V2X also brings new capabilities to the table.

As a part of 3GPP release 14, V2X includes two transmission modes that collectively enable several use cases:

Direct C-V2X (Cellular V2X) – operates in its own 5.9 GHz spectrum that is independent of mobile networks. It includes the following use cases:

  • Cars connecting to each other – Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)
  • Cars connecting to pedestrians – Vehicle to Pedestrians (V2P)
  • Cars connecting to infrastructure like street signals – Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)

Vehicle to Network (V2N) – relies on traditional licensed mobile spectrum

In Release 16, too, direct C-V2X can operate without dependence on cellular networks. However, 5G connectivity helps build an ecosystem of highly reliable and accurate devices that enable autonomous vehicles. These include sensors, cameras, light detection devices, real-time car-to-car communications, and more. With 5G’s ability to support a large number of connected devices in a small geographical area, vehicles will be able to access more data about their surroundings.

C-V2X use cases enabled by 5G

The V2X ecosystem enables a broad range of services for connected car environments, and 5G takes accuracy to new heights. Some high-value use cases include:

  • Cars connecting to cyclists
  • Traffic lights broadcasting signals to cars
  • Dynamic maps in real-time
  • Central planning systems to coordinate traffic flow
  • High-density platooning or cars driving in close proximity to safely optimize road space
  • Positioning and ranging
  • Identifying empty parking slots
  • Hazard warnings
  • Cooperative driving
  • Collecting tolls without drivers having to stop at physical checkpoints

Why it demands an edge core

Today, autonomous cars like Tesla and Zoox are highly advanced and require mission-critical low-latency. 5G URLLC enables them to fully meet their potential. The 5G edge core is essential in enabling mobile network operators to cater to 5G connected cars by helping keep latency low, maintaining safety even for vehicles driving at high speeds.

How does 5G core enable V2X?

An edge core with high transaction per second (TPS) is imperative for C-V2X. Alepo’s 5G Converged Core provides V2X support, including V2X subscriptions and policies, the capability to configure and maintain V2X subscription parameters, and more. It allows UEs to be authorized for V2X capability in both EPC and 5GC. UEs can be classified into two types – vehicle and pedestrian – each having its own QoS parameters.

Alepo’s Policy Control Function (PCF) will help configure policies for vehicle and pedestrian UEs. The operator can launch innovative V2X services by defining parameters such as RAT, transmission profile, communication mode, and signaling protection mode. Individual services can then be associated with a V2X policy, customizable for different geographical areas and radio parameters.

With Alepo’s Subscriber Data Management (SDM) agent portal, each individual subscriber profile can be enabled for V2X services. This flexible configuration will enable the operator to achieve optimized end-to-end V2X connectivity.

Where we’re headed

Cellular vehicle-to-everything provides a host of benefits for all involved parties: vehicle manufacturers, drivers, pedestrians, those in charge of traffic operations and management, and, of course, 5G network providers. 5G enables the end-to-end delivery of V2X services, ensuring high ROI.

C-V2X can be rapidly deployed as it is compatible with LTE base stations. 3GPP standards help provide a roadmap for operators to evolve from LTE to 5G, ensuring a highly scalable and future-proof investment. Operators can leverage their existing network infrastructure for the initial rollout of services, and gradually transition as they evolve their networks.

It will be a while before the autonomous car ecosystem is fully functional. However, the technology is ready and communications service providers should invest in the necessary infrastructure now. Trials should be conducted to ensure the reliability and feasibility of the ecosystem.

Alepo already has 5G trials underway, and we’d love to share the details with you. To know more, write to us on market.development@alepo.com.

Nitish Muley

Nitish Muley

Senior Engineer

Nitish has spent years developing use cases for technologies like VR, AR, IoT, and is currently working on Alepo’s newest products. Always up to speed with the latest in the industry, Nitish is a voracious reader – and fervent writer – about all things related to tech and wireless standards. After hours, he wears a traveler’s hat, pursuing his love for photography as he explores different countries.

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Four key enablers for 5G monetization

Four key enablers for 5G monetization

Four key enablers for 5G monetization


August 05, 2021




Operators today provide connectivity to millions of people who are embracing a more digital lifestyle. They are also facilitating this shift for enterprises as they undergo digital transformation. To make their 5G investments profitable, CSPs need a monetization strategy that takes a multipronged approach. In addition to direct monetization, they must include partnerships, digital ecosystems, as well as unique and innovative business models. 5G monetization demands that communications service providers (CSPs) reshape and evolve their revenue management systems to ensure they can support complex B2B, B2C, and B2B2X services. So, what are the key enablers for this change?

5G use cases ready to be monetized 

5G means CSPs will be able to offer a host of new services that require advanced monetization platforms, new business models, and new ways of thinking from traditional voice and data subscriptions. These include services enabled by 5G capabilities such as:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): enables CSPs to handle ever-increasing data rates, user density, and traffic capacity.
  • Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC): enables the IoT ecosystem, where a large number of devices are connected to the network with varying policies.
  • Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC): caters to latency demands, especially for mission-critical and safety-critical applications.
  • Network Slicing: enables operators to use shared physical infrastructure to create multiple autonomous networks, each one catering to different QoS requirements for bandwidth, storage, processing power, and more.

The key enablers for 5G monetization

To cater to the needs of their individual and enterprise customers, and to capitalize on the possibilities of 5G, CSPs need to focus on these four key enablers:

Platform-based business model

As the 5G ecosystem expands the services and applications that can be consumed through the network, CSPs need to evolve their business models to serve as platforms that connect consumers with producers. A platform-based business model enables operators to build a wide range of industry-specific business models based on consumption (APIs, insights, and so on), use of shared infrastructure, customer journeys, and more. Operators can also set up digital ecosystems using the platform business model. These ecosystems or digital marketplaces connect businesses with consumers.

5G operators can leverage their existing infrastructure to forge diverse partnerships and offer a platform to producers, manufacturers, retailers of products and services. Network slicing enables CSPs to support and monetize these services. These partnerships can span across industry verticals such as connected cars, smart cities, industrial IoT, and more.

CSPs today are associated with multiple diverse service chains and can leverage their customer data and analytics to create highly profitable platforms that are mutually beneficial for customers and the providers of the service. They can be used to introduce more advanced offerings. For instance, Telefónica UK provides an insurance offering called O2 Drive, leveraging customer data insights to create contextual offers at better rates. The app uses GPS tracking to monitor customer journeys, giving each customer a score to tell them how safely they drive and providing tips to improve.

Robust partnership ecosystem

One of 5G’s core transformative abilities is in enabling service providers to forge diverse partnerships, thus enabling B2B2X ecosystems. 5G and IoT open business opportunities at multiple levels, with business models such as shared infrastructure, revenue-sharing, connecting multiple devices on a single network, and more. Operators can monetize partnerships based on SLAs and QoS, volumes, product/service type, inventories, infrastructure use, API and service consumption, and so on. Partners can, in turn, implement subscription- and transaction-based models, charging consumers based on their usage in terms of time, volume, output, and more.

CSPs can facilitate and monetize diverse and advanced telco as well as non-telco applications, building a partner ecosystem that spans across industries. Use cases such as road safety with self-driving vehicles and smart traffic management hold immense ROI potential. Logistics companies can be provided platforms to maximize business efficiency through real-time fleet tracking, route and fuel optimization, and more. Smart grids and utility providers can use data from IoT and connected devices to manage distribution. Healthcare professionals can benefit from platforms that enable telemedicine and remote surgeries. Agriculture can employ connected devices such as drones, sensors, and cameras to monitor soil and crop quality. Manufacturing units and factories can connect all devices on the floor from larger machines right down to a screwdriver to optimize efficiency. For retail applications, operators can help enable smart home portals and apps, digital ecosystem platforms, and much more.

Customer-focused innovation

Customer experience (CX) is a major driver for success today, compelling operators to shift their focus to customer service and service monetization in all aspects of their business, from designing products to the partnerships they build.

Ensuring good CX includes innovative business offerings, digitized experience, high network performance, service availability, and reliability. It also means billing, charging, settlement, customer support processes need to be CX-driven. Operators must look at automating CX by integrating artificial intelligence (AI) in their back-office processes such as order management as well as by implementing chatbots and automation in their payment and self-care apps.

So, how do operators monetize CX? A major part of it is ensuring simple and easy-to-implement pricing structures. Offering asset-light business models is especially beneficial to enterprises, where CSPs can provide the underlying IT and charging infrastructure to businesses, granting them full control of the services they offer to their consumers without having to invest in their own infrastructure.

Monetization models can be based on a host of different parameters depending on the applications, such as UE/MAC address for IoT and I-IoT applications, infrastructure use, inventories, geographical locations, time of day, demand, and more.

SBA core driven networks

SBA architecture with 5G core and cloud infrastructure are key enablers to the network, helping launch advanced services like URLLC, network slicing, and more. Network slicing is set to revolutionize how networks are used and monetized. And while sharing network resources means more efficient use of the infrastructure, it demands advanced charging systems to cater to the diverse use cases it supports. One slice may demand low-latency QoS, while another demands ultrafast speed, and a third demands high bandwidth. Monetizing these network slices demands dynamic near-real-time charging and policy control.

In addition to QoS, 5G monetization platforms enable charging for network use, based on the number of connections, data frequency, real-time versus non-real-time operations, location precision, and more.

Solutions that maximize 5G monetization capabilities 

In consumer as well as enterprise applications, 5G supports endless possibilities of business models and charging use cases. They will be required to support online as well as offline charging, scaling to handle the demands of IoT billing so they can charge small amounts at a massive scale. They will also need to support a range of revenue-sharing arrangements with n-level hierarchies. CSPs will need to ensure they are constantly innovating to support charging with evolving services like on-demand network slices.

As CSPs make the transition to 5G, successful monetization relies largely on the flexibility of an operator’s billing, charging, and policy infrastructure systems to support multiple pricing models. They also need to implement a next-gen partner management solution to handle diverse partnerships. Implementing a future-proof digital BSS/OSS infrastructure helps begin their journey of digital transformation, enabling them to get the most out of their 5G monetization infrastructure.

Rajesh Mhapankar

Rajesh Mhapankar

Vice President, Product Management

A seasoned professional, technologist, innovator, and telecom expert. With over 20 years of experience in the software industry, Rajesh brings a strong track record of accelerating product innovations and development at Alepo. He supports the company’s mission-critical BSS/OSS projects in LTE, WiFi and broadband networks, including core policy, charging, and control elements.

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Leveraging partnerships to increase 5G revenue

Leveraging partnerships to increase 5G revenue

Leveraging partnerships to increase 5G revenue


August 05, 2021




Partnerships are the future of 5G, and they will shape the future of the CSP. Success will rely on the systems and infrastructure that enable CSPs to create new and innovative business opportunities, helping build a vast and diverse partner ecosystem. Increasing their 5G revenue will mean that telecom operators will need to look beyond offering network coverage and support more advanced uses and outcomes with the connectivity they provide.

The use of technology is increasing in sectors such as agriculture, logistics, energy, manufacturing, automotive, and transportation, helping drive business decisions, improve processes, optimize resource use, and secure new revenue streams. Many have also begun using RFID tags, sensors, cameras, drones, and other real-time surveillance and data-gathering devices. As more and more industries begin to digitize their businesses and use cloud-based infrastructure, they need robust and reliable network connectivity to ensure they can efficiently monitor and operate their assets, support process automation, and handle large volumes of data unlike ever before. And that’s where 5G comes in.

Through private or enterprise 5G, CSPs can enable businesses to run their own secure and reliable networks. Network slicing also reduces the need for businesses to invest in dedicated infrastructure. CSPs can optimize and monetize their network by dividing it into dedicated “slices” for different enterprise customers, allocating resources depending on the use case.

Top 8 industries that benefit from 5G partnerships

Partnerships provide infinite possibilities for CSPs, though some industries are more likely to be early adopters of the technology. Some of these industries and their use cases include:


5G will revolutionize transport: a recent World Bank report states that 5G holds the potential to accelerate several evolving technologies such as sharing economy and digital platforms, electric and autonomous vehicles, and advanced business models like Mobility as a Service (MaaS). The report also says that mobility-driven demand for connectivity will likely be an important revenue stream for expanded 5G coverage, and the revenue from connected vehicles in major road corridors could potentially yield ROI within just 3-4 years.

Autonomous vehicles will improve road safety and be especially viable on closed campuses in the near future. Smart traffic control with real-time management through connected traffic lights will alleviate traffic congestion. Extending route-mapping technology to transport fleets will improve efficiency and provide real-time updates to commuters on transit times and/or delays. Connecting public places like stadiums with public transport systems will enable them to anticipate higher demand during events.

  • V2X communications
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle communication
  • Airborne taxis
  • Prognostic maintenance
  • Internet of Moving Things
  • Remote vehicle health monitoring
  • In-vehicle infotainment
  • Intelligent traffic
  • Energy and utilities

    The energy industry currently faces the shift to renewable power, uncertainty over fuel prices, outdated infrastructure, declining revenues, and regulation and policy restrictions. Next-gen technology can help tackle these challenges, helping build a digitalized smart grid using AI, machine learning, and data analytics, and connected with 5G. Intelligence gathered from IoT devices and other technologies gives utility providers more control over distribution, battery energy storage, and renewable energy generation. This enables building smart factories, improved agility, improved CX, lower operating costs, decentralized business models, and high ROI.

  • Smart street lighting
  • Virtual power plants
  • Smart energy management
  • Drone monitoring
  • Smart metering
  • Predictive maintenance
  • Healthcare

    Private 5G is set to revolutionize healthcare, helping ensure more efficient patient care, implement monitoring to enable preventative practices, and reduce escalating treatment costs. It will also mean improved healthcare practices, safer storage of patient data, and broadening access even to those in remote or distant areas.

    The high speeds, reliable connectivity, low latency, and real-time data streaming that private 5G networks provide enable limitless IoT applications, also known as the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). Teleconsultation is already being adopted by many hospitals and clinics – a trend escalated by the pandemic to enable patients to access quality medical care from the safety of their homes. As IoT-enabled automation and private 5G networks become more pervasive, healthcare professionals will be able to leverage these technologies to provide e-health applications and personalized treatment options.

  • Remote surgeries
  • AR/VR-enabled healthcare
  • Telemedicine
  • Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgeries
  • Remote patient monitoring
  • Wearables and ingestibles
  • Connected ambulances
  • Implantable device monitoring
  • Financial services

    Today, the success of financial services such as banks, finance, and insurance (BFSI) companies is hinged, among others, on two important factors: security and customer experience. Private 5G helps fulfill these two requirements by providing ultra-high reliability, higher data capacity, and low latency. The adoption of private 5G and more widespread use of IoT systems and devices will help boost security and CX while driving ROI. It supports disruption from fintech firms, enables a host of advanced mobile transactions, and facilitates service providers to create custom financial solutions to meet an array of business requirements.

  • Smart bank branches
  • Remote tellers
  • AI-based personal banking
  • Payment-enabled wearables
  • Entertainment and media

    5G technology will change the face of entertainment and media. According to this report, the global media industry is expected to gain $765bn in cumulative revenues from the new applications and services that 5G enables. Smartphones and consumer devices increasingly support the richer and more advanced audio, video, and multimedia experiences that are facilitated by 5G’s low latency and high bandwidth. The next step is new media experiences for residential and enterprise applications. This will mean collaborative and shared live entertainment, AR/VR, interactive and cloud gaming, immersive events such as sports, personalized content, immersive advertising, and much more.

  • Temporary event networks
  • Enhanced mobile advertising
  • Smart stadiums
  • Connected haptic suits
  • Immersive media
  • Enhanced mobile media
  • In-car entertainment
  • Ultra-high-definition video streaming
  • Manufacturing

    Manufacturing units that run business-critical activities require infrastructure and applications that demand high reliability, low latency, and uninterrupted connectivity without a wired network. Enterprise or private 5G enables the application of robotics, AI, automation, Industrial IoT, and augmented reality to improve efficiency, lower costs, transform production processes, and facilitate new business models for manufacturing companies. It can help minimize downtime and delays in production, enable streamlined supply chain management, facilitate improved quality checks, boost staff safety, and empower more informed decision-making in real-time using BI analytics.

  • Smart factories
  • Predictive maintenance
  • Digital twins
  • Drones
  • Human-robot collaboration
  • Augmented reality for repairs
  • Education

    The pandemic has already accelerated a massive digital revolution in learning, moving teaching to virtual classrooms. And while e-learning is off to a good start, 5G will help bridge the divide caused by the limitations inherent to legacy networks such as lagging speeds and the lack of more immersive experiences. Improved connectivity, ultrafast speeds, and the integration of IoT and robotics will enable educators to create enriched educational experiences that not only match classroom experiences but also surpass them.

  • Smart classrooms
  • AR/VR
  • Remote learning
  • Holographic instructors
  • Robots educators
  • Personalized learning
  • Agriculture

    5G is expected to revolutionize the agricultural sector, enabling centralized and real-time control over agricultural practices. Many have been turning to newer technologies in recent years to monitor and improve farming practices. Drones, sensors, and cameras are already in use to monitor soil hydration, rainfall, soil nutrients, weeds, temperature, and so on. Connecting these devices to a 5G network and leveraging next-gen features will enable more precision and efficiency in the systems. Smart farming applications enable farmers to segment their fields and treat different sections based on their unique needs using machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and AI. Farmers can use geolocation services to track livestock in real-time, monitor food intake, keep a check on animal health, and more.

  • Precision farming
  • Autonomous plants
  • Self-driving tractors
  • Extended IoT and M2M
  • Wireless sensors and drones
  • Livestock tracking
  • How Alepo can help

    Cross-industry partnerships will be the most lucrative path to success for 5G service providers, and to attract more partners, they will need to enable innovative 5G use cases. This means providing a robust platform that supports easy onboarding of partners and customers, omnichannel support, and in-built monetization systems. As early movers in enabling 5G, we’ve already begun facilitating operators to stay ahead of the global trend of small and medium businesses turning to operators for their private 5G networks. Our end-to-end solutions enable operators to forge cross-industry partnerships, meet regulatory needs, and develop fail-proof cybersecurity strategies. Learn more about our 5GC solutions.

    Pankaj Garg

    Pankaj Garg

    Director, Product Management

    Pankaj Garg is a telecom and FinTech expert with over 15 years of experience in the software industry. Handling digital BSS and 5G offerings is among the many hats he wears at Alepo. Always up to speed with the newest advancements in the products he handles, he takes it slow only when he’s road-tripping across India to discover new places.

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    How advanced charging use cases accelerate 5G monetization

    How advanced charging use cases accelerate 5G monetization

    How advanced charging use cases accelerate 5G monetization


    April 27, 2021




    Why 5G demands new charging capabilities  

    5G’s transformative features such as low latency, ultrafast speeds, and high bandwidth open a world of opportunities for consumer and industry applications. Its ability to support massive volumes – according to Statista, 50 billion internet of things (IoT) connected devices are expected to be in use by 2030 – also unlocks the full potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). An operator’s charging capabilities thus assume a pivotal role, ensuring all 5G services are fully monetizable using modern and advanced charging use cases.

    The charging engines many operators use today were designed for networks like 3G and LTE. These previous generations did not have the network scalability and performance needs of 5G, and are unable to support the advanced monetization capabilities that 5G use cases require to accurately charge across a large number of services, devices, and different event types. This demands fundamental changes to the underlying monetization architecture, taking a service-based approach, much like the 5G core network itself.

    How next-gen charging capabilities work

    Implementing next-gen charging and policy control functions of the 5G core enables operators to truly harness the monetization potential of 5G. The Charging Function (CHF) enables operators to charge for everything, supporting models for multiple parties (for instance, B2B2X models), helps implement RESTful processes, and enables real-time charging on various types of events. The Policy Control Function (PCF) enables end-to-end policy management, implements slice-based policies for highly specific applications, supports innovation and enrichment through service exposure, and offers advanced analytics for improved services.

    In recent years, more and more operators have implemented converged charging for all their services, which is also part of the 3GPP Release 15 standard. The CHF has been functionally and architecturally restructured for 5G versus its legacy OCS counterpart. Supporting both online as well as offline charging, it is crucial to enabling 5G service providers to swiftly respond to evolving customer demands and introducing new and innovative services that can be charged. It implements network integrations that are formulated in keeping with service-based architecture, enabling next-gen monetization opportunities, employing cloud-based and containerized technology, enabling more automation, agility, flexibility, and minimizing revenue leaks.

    Through network slicing, 5G operators can provide “slices” or smaller dedicated parts of their networks to customers, dedicating resources depending on the SLA to focus on speed, latency, capacity, and so on, supporting use cases such as smart buildings, smart offices, private campus networks, connected vehicles, and much more, all of which require charging support. Plus, 5G works on microservices-based infrastructure that helps deliver ultra-low latency, and to enable this, previously centralized charging components will now need to be more distributed and move closer to the network edge. So, 5G charging systems are required to support various new types of services like API calls, tiered QoS plans, edge computing capacity, and more.

    Modern and scalable convergent charging systems assume particular relevance for enterprises, enabling a gamut of new-age applications to help businesses differentiate themselves while swiftly unlocking these new revenue streamsIn the coming years, as 5G standalone deployments become more widespread, converged charging is expected to be more widely implemented.

    5G charging use cases

    5G supports a wide range of B2B, B2C, as well as B2B2X services, and thus demands charging use cases that help ensure zero revenue leakage across services. These include charging based on:


    Network slicing is a key 5G use case and is integral to 5G charging. Most devices today have the same bandwidth and service levels, but network slicing creates new charging opportunities by enabling the segregation of network resources. Operators can provide slices to cater to a wide range of customer requirements, offering endless possibilities for revenue streams. Using flexible charging models, operators can monetize these slices for both direct consumers as well as the enterprise. Operators can offer various granular and personalized services to consumers on different slices. And for the enterprise customer, operators can offer models for different needs like IoT-connected devices and equipment, for its employees, its customers, special events, field tests and trials, and so on, for which unique policy and charging rules can be defined.

    Network slices can be created based on various criteria, some of which include:

    QoS tiers

    Operators can charge subscribers based on the Quality of Service (QoS) they have signed up for. This is particularly relevant for industrial and enterprise applications, empowering the enterprise to define granular metrics such as latency, data rate, capacity, mobility, security, throughput, response time, level of service, and more.

    SLA-based services

    Network slices are designed to serve individual customer needs, for metrics including system capacity, user experience, energy consumption, coverage, latency, and more. The Service Level Agreement (SLA) will be defined based on the level of service a customer expects from each slice. 5G charging systems enable operators to dynamically scale pricing, define policy rules for specific devices, and much more, enabling them to offer more specific SLAs.

    Platform use (PaaS)

    Operators can build their own platforms and use open APIs to share and charge for their network and IT infrastructure with platform providers or developers who can use cloud infrastructure to deploy applications. The customer has control over the application, but the operator controls the underlying infrastructure.

    Software use (SaaS)

    In this case, the operator can charge for applications that it runs on the cloud and provides to consumers. The operator controls and manages both the infrastructure as well as the application and can charge on different events like time or usage.

    Infrastructure use (IaaS)

    Service providers can partner with enterprises to share their infrastructure and/or applications, granting the enterprise control over this infrastructure while charging for its use. This is especially useful for smaller enterprises who do not want to invest in their own infrastructure but are in need of a secure and private network.

    Digital ecosystems

    Operators can set up digital ecosystems or marketplaces to provide a platform that connects producers and providers of goods and services with consumers, forging partnerships with these providers to monetize the service. Here, operators have the added advantage of having access to advanced data and analytics tools that help them segregate customers, run targeted campaigns, and more.

    Real-time performance

    5G’s ultrafast speeds, stable connectivity, and low latency enable real-time applications, including multimedia like augmented reality, virtual reality, and gaming. Operators can define charging based on real-time performance for these applications.

    Benefits of next-gen charging systems 

    5G charging engines offer a host of benefits to operators, enabling them to swiftly adapt to dynamic market needs. Some of these include:

    Handle advanced 5G use cases 

    With the rapid increase in the number of devices connected to the network, 5G charging systems must handle an unprecedented amount of traffic and charge for the endless application possibilities of next-gen networks. 3GPP has defined a host of possibilities for the 5G charging ecosystem, introducing elements in the 5G core that are unavailable in legacy charging systems. The PCF serves as a unified platform to govern the implementation of policy and charging rules. The Session Management Function enables operators to seamlessly implement session charging between devices, so they can efficiently charge users when they use different devices for the same service, for instance, like watching a movie. And other network functions, such as the Network Exposure Function (NEF), Access and Mobility Management Function (AMF), and Network Slice Management, equip operators to gather essential device and location data, implement slice-based charging, enable multiple flexible charging scenarios, facilitate operators and enterprises to share session information, allow granular charging based on advanced analytics, and more.

    Develop diverse partnerships

    5G charging capabilities include support for multiple business partners on a single platform, enabling operators’ business and marketing teams to easily and dynamically forge innovative partnerships to monetize B2B2X, B2B, B2C, wholesale, and IoT services.

    Enhance customer experience

    By making a host of advanced use cases fully monetizable, 5G charging paves the way for innovation, boosting CX, improving brand differentiation, and ensuring customer loyalty.

    High return on investment

    Advanced charging helps open new revenue streams as well as secure the revenue potential of existing services, maximizing ROI.

    Improve business agility

    Operators can effortlessly launch new plans and promotions, automate transaction processing even for the most complex use cases, implement flexible data models that support complex account hierarchies for granular plans and services, and more.

    How Alepo can help 

    Alepo supports advanced charging use cases through robust convergent charging and policy control network functions, both of which are part of the 5G-compliant Digital BSS product suite and Alepo’s 5G Core Network solution. Both can either be deployed as part of the new solution or integrated with any other vendor’s BSS, enabling you to preserve your existing network investments.

    Legacy 4G/LTE environments are unable to support charging for 5G use cases, so the first step towards implementing advanced charging is ensuring you have a modern BSS and 5G Core infrastructure. As experts in this domain, Alepo can provide a host of deployment options to smoothly transition to 5G, including local, public, hybrid, 4G + 5G combo, and private models.

    Rajesh Mhapankar

    Rajesh Mhapankar

    Director, Innovations

    A seasoned professional, technologist, innovator, and telecom expert. With over 20 years of experience in the software industry, Rajesh brings a strong track record of accelerating product innovations and development at Alepo. He supports the company’s mission-critical BSS/OSS projects in LTE, WiFi and broadband networks, including core policy, charging, and control elements.

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    Deployment Modes for 5G Compact Core

    Deployment Modes for 5G Compact Core

    Deployment Modes for 5G Compact Core


    April 8, 2021




    5G holds immense potential to transform virtually every industry with its ultrafast speeds, low latency, high bandwidth, and reliability. As healthcare, automotive, manufacturing, entertainment, and a host of other sectors eagerly await the application of next-gen use cases, the race is on for service providers to find the easiest path to rolling out and monetizing the next-gen technology, especially for their enterprise clients. Alepo’s Compact Core facilitates the support of enterprise deployments, particularly those looking for private networks, and it offers a host of flexible options depending on the operator’s unique business requirements.

    Alepo’s Compact Core

    Most existing 5G networks are powered by 4G core/EPC and 5G RAN (non-standalone 5G or 5G NSA), and since they are dependent on the 4G core, they aren’t true end-to-end 5G networks. Alepo’s new-generation Compact Core, along with the ESS Portal, is set to change that. All elements in the 5G-compliant Compact Core are pre-integrated, ensuring that enterprises can swiftly set up standalone 5G networks (5G SA) that are independent of the 4G core, while also supporting combo deployments over an existing 4G core.

    The industrialized Compact Core solution enables service providers to support enterprise and industrial use cases for a small number of subscribers. A complete pre-integrated and self-contained solution, the Compact Core includes the network core and other networking infrastructure, working seamlessly with end devices and the radio access network without impacting or depending on external systems.

    The solution comprises AuSF for Authentication, UDM for Authorization, a converged policy combo (PCF + PCRF), and Data Repository for Subscriber Data Management. It also includes an enterprise self-service portal for enterprises to import and efficiently manage all connected devices. (For more details on its features and benefits, read our blog, Envisioning Private 5G Success with Compact Core.)

    Compact Core Deployment Modes

    Local deployment model

    DescriptionBenefitsUse Cases
      The 5G Core (5GC) is deployed on-premise over private cloud or standalone servers. The containerized 5G core network functions (NFs) are deployed on cloud-native infrastructure. It is a completely isolated system with no external inputs or outputs, and all data processing is completed and stored onsite.
    • High security with local control and no outside connection

    • Optimizes OPEX

    • One-box solution

    • Ensures smooth operations and maintenance through support for integrated EMS and PaaS tools

    • Manufacturing

    • Utilities

    • Public safety

    • Smart buildings

    • Education

    Hybrid deployment model

    DescriptionBenefitsUse Cases
      The User Plan Function (UPF) is deployed on the telco edge or enterprise premise, while the 5G core is deployed on private or public cloud at a centralized location. All devices are connected to a centralized server; the data payload dynamically changes depending on the edge location, helping ensure low latency.
    • Enables low-latency data connectivity

    • The UPF is connected to the 5G Core using a secured tunnel, ensuring failproof security

    • All 5GC NFs are deployed with a minimal resource footprint

    • Enables focus on data control and access, with dedicated communications only where needed

    • Ensures smooth operations and maintenance through support for integrated EMS and PaaS tools

    Public cloud model

    DescriptionBenefitsUse Cases
      The 5G core NFs are deployed on highly distributed public cloud infrastructure, enabling one or more geographic locations both within the operator’s premises as well as in other regions. Supports secure and reliable wireless infrastructure for industrial applications.
    • Reduces network management complexities and ongoing IT maintenance

    • Lowers CAPEX and deployment time

    • Simplifies deployments through automated orchestration and configuration

    • Helps efficiently manage traffic

    • Industrial IoT (IIoT)

    • Manufacturing automation

    • Events

    • 5G AR

    • Base station sites

    • Regional and/or national data centers for edge infrastructure

    4G+5G combo model

    DescriptionBenefitsUse Cases
      This converged offering for a joint 4G and 5G core supports containerized 4G+5G core NFs that are deployed over cloud-native infrastructure, with support for inter-RAT and intra-RAT mobility.
    • Can be deployed with or without N26 interworking support

    • A one-box solution

    • Helps optimize CAPEX and OPEX

    • Supports integrated EMS and PaaS tools for smooth operations and maintenance
    • Enterprises who want to support LTE from a 5G core

    • Network slicing

    Business Benefits of Alepo’s Compact Core

    Partnering with Alepo for the Compact Core offers a host of advantages for service providers:

    • The solution’s flexibility in deployment is unparalleled, ensuring a low resource footprint no matter what deployment mode an enterprise chooses.
    • The Compact Core leverages cloud-native features to ensure hassle-free, automated, and cost-efficient operations that can be tailored for each enterprise’s unique business requirements.
    • The plug-and-play capability enables enterprises to swiftly launch a private network, bundling in one solution a host of network offerings (broadband, voice, and more). The various open interfaces such as Radio Access Network (RAN) or core network can plug into the operator’s network for wide-area coverage. The solution enables the enterprise to support and control services (like edge computing) and facilitates network management using a network slice.
    • Alepo is an early mover in helping operators implement 5G technology, with many 5GC projects and compact cores deployed. As an end-to-end solutions provider, we leverage our many cross-industry partnerships, build cybersecurity plans, and ensure regulatory compliance in your region of operations, enabling you to realize your operational and business goals so you can focus on helping your enterprise clients do that same.

    Begin your next-gen journey today by booking a demo with our 5G solution experts.

    Prathamesh Malushte

    Prathamesh Malushte

    Principal Solution Architect

    Prathamesh is a PDM and solution integration specialist with expertise in 5G core network functions and protocols. He specializes in creating user stories, call flows, and designs for 5GC as well as legacy networks, as well as in handling OSS/BSS intricacies. After hours, he loves sports, enjoys trekking, and is passionate about playing different musical instruments.

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    The advantages of 5G service-based architecture (SBA)

    The advantages of 5G service-based architecture (SBA)

    The advantages of 5G service-based architecture (SBA)

    18th of March 2021

    An introduction to 5G service-based architecture

    5G brings transformational changes to the core network with a modular and cloud-native approach. One key advancement is that it upgrades the traditional telco architecture to Service-Based Architecture (SBA), enabling more flexible service development.

    Introduced to improve the modularity of the network system, SBA lets network elements or network functions (NFs) in 5G communicate with each other over a service-based interface. It allows the decoupling of NFs with more precise functionalities. Each NF provides a set of services to another NF in the SBA. These NFs communicate with each other using a more open REST-based interface rather than traditional telco protocols such as Diameter.

    What does this integral change in network architecture mean for telcos?

    The SBA offers a host of benefits, including:

    • Deploys as containers orchestrated by Kubernetes, allowing the core to run on non-proprietary infrastructure
    • Lets new software vendors plug-and-play their NFs for a best of breeds approach
    • Enables network slicing, with dynamic and efficient resource utilization
    • Simplifies operations using application programming interface (APIs)
    • Leverages the use of harmonized protocols such as HTTP/2 and its well-developed security mechanisms
    • Facilitates seamless integration of third-party applications with the core network

    SBA offers a host of benefits

    How network functions communicate in SBA

    Every NF in the SBA acts as a service producer and a service consumer for each NF. All NFs communicate with each other using one of two mechanisms:

    • Request-response mechanism: here, a consumer NF requests a producer NF for services over HTTP/2 request, and the producer NF complies.
    • Subscribe-notify mechanism: a consumer NF subscribes to certain events of the producer NF, and the producer NF notifies the consumer NF once the particular event occurs.

    All of this communication is always completed using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) objects.

    The Network Repository Function – a standalone NF – acts as a unified NF repository and an internal mediator between NFs for operations such as discovery and status tracking of NF instances. For instance, if the Access and Mobility Function (AMF) wants to communicate with the Session Management Function (SMF) to establish a data session, and needs certain information about the SMF (including NF type, FQDN/IP address, endpoint information, services supported, and more) to ensure its communication with the SMF is seamless, it requests this information from the NRF. The NRF responds with the required data, facilitating smooth communication between the two.

    The SBA provides an underlying REST-based stateless transaction framework for previously stateful services.

    From the development standpoint, interfaces (APIs) for SBA are defined with Interface Definition Language (IDL). The interface definitions are written using YAML, and are language- and platform-independent, reducing development time and effort. They are utilized by the producer NF and consumer NF to ensure that communication between them is standardized and harmonized.

    The full potential of 5G SBA

    5G SBA allows any third-party application, referred by 3GPP as Application Function (AF), to interact with 5G NFs in a secured manner. Another NF – Network Exposure Function (NEF) – acts as a mediator for external communication. For example, the AF will subscribe to AMF events via NEF, the AMF will notify the NEF once the event occurs, and the NEF will then notify the AF. This is vital in enabling several next-gen use cases such as precise indoor navigation for complex buildings such as airports, train stations, hospitals, malls, trade shows, offices, industrial areas, and more.

    A 5G standalone (5G-SA) network will leverage the full potential of service-based architecture, elevating the consumer’s mobile network experience while also opening a host of monetization and partnership opportunities for MNOs.

    How Alepo can accelerate your 5G journey

    With its vast experience in automation and digital transformation, Alepo designs advanced 5G Core and digital BSS solutions that ensure modern, flexible, secured, and operationally efficient deployments.

    Alepo’s 5G Converged Core supports 4G, 5G Non-Standalone (NSA), as well as 5G SA deployments. Along with Alepo’s 5G core network functions, it provides key components of the 5G core, including subscriber data management, policy control and charging, AUSF, UDM+HSS, UDR, PCF+PCRF, and more.

    The Converged Core employs cloud- and PaaS-agnostic microservices-based software architecture and supports flexible deployment models such as public, private, and hybrid. It also supports both containerized (using Docker) as well as VNF-based deployments, facilitating matured, integrated, and robust 5G implementation at the application, infrastructural, and process levels.

    Nitish Muley

    Nitish Muley

    Senior Engineer

    Nitish has spent years building mobile apps for technologies like VR, AR, IoT, and is currently working on Alepo’s newest products. Always up to speed with the latest in the industry, Nitish is a voracious reader – and fervent writer – about all things related to tech and wireless standards. After hours, he wears a traveler’s hat, pursuing his love for photography as he explores different countries.

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